Relationship of Quran with hadith – O level Islamiat notes
The Quran being the word of Allah contains the principles of Islam, solutions to major issues, and often deals with the subjects in brief terms. The Hadith of Prophet (PBUH) contains its details and particulars. The Quran says:
“AND WE HAVE SENT DOWN THEE THE MESSAGE: THAT THOU MAYEST EXPLAIN CLEARLY TO MEN WHAT IS SENT FOR THEM”.
The Holy Quran itself commands that the Prophet’s (PBUH) teachings have to be obeyed. Whenever Quran commands its followers to obey Allah, it also commands them to obey Prophet (PBUH). It declares that obedience to Prophet (PBUH) is obedience to Allah himself. The Quran says:
“HE WHO OBEYS THE MESSENGER, OBEYS ALLAH”
At another instance, Quran says:
“OBEY ALLAH AND OBEY THE MESSENGER”
The Hadith of Prophet (PBUH) along with Quran is the foundation of Quranic laws.
While the Quran gives Muslims a primary rule of life, there are many matters where guidance for practical life is necessary. In cases where Quran is silent, Hadith has to be followed. There could be no better guide than Prophet (PBUH) himself, who provided an oral and practical interpretation and commentary as an aid to the correct understanding of the meaning of Quran. The structure of Shariah is thus based on Quran and the words and actions of Prophet (PBUH).
In Quran, we are commanded to offer prayer but no method of performing prayer has been mentioned.
“PROSTRATE (TO HIM) AND BOW ALONGSIDE THOSE WHO BOW DOWN”.
The method is told in a Hadith of Prophet (PBUH), as he said:
“OFFER PRAYER AS YOU SEE ME OFFERING PRAYER”
. The Quran teaches us to pay Zakat:
“THOSE WHO KEEP UP PRAYER, GIVE THE ZAKAT AND BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND THE LAST DAY”
Again, we aren’t told about the quantity of Zakat, the way it is to be paid. Although from the Hadith we get the answer:
“NO CHARITY TAX IS OBLIGATORY ON PROPERTY MOUNTING TO LESS THAN FIVE UQIYA AND NO CHARITY TAX IS OBLIGATORY ON FEWER THAN FIVE CAMELS, AND THERE IS NO CHARITY TAX ON FEWER THAN FIVE WASQ”.
Many verses of Quran are there, having a technical meaning, which could be understood from the context of words but requires some elaboration. Quran says:
“AND EAT AND DRINK UNTIL THE WHITE THREAD BECOMES DISTINCT TO YOU FROM THE BLACK THREAD OF THE DAWN”
The meaning of black thread and white is clear but Prophet (PBUH) clarified any sorts of doubts by telling that the white thread means the day and the black thread refers tonight.
The Quran sometimes says in general injunctions to the humans, which is not specified but the Hadith specifies it. The Holy Quran says:
“THOSE WHO BELIEVE AND OBSCURE NOT THEIR BELIEF BY ZULM, THERE IS SAFETY..”.
The word “zulm” means wrongdoing but Prophet (PBUH) specified that zulm refers to associating partners with Allah.
Sometimes there are cases in which Quranic teachings are restricted and could be taken from several perspectives but Hadith restricts the meaning. As for theft, Holy Quran says:
“AS FOR THE THIEF, BOTH MALE AND FEMALE, CUT OFF THEIR HANDS”
Here the question arises that how much of the hand to be cut off and which hand? Prophet (PBUH) restricted its meaning by teaching that right hand up to the wrists is to be cut off.