Prophet’s conduct in treaties
The first treaty that was agreed upon under the leadership of Prophet (PBUH) in Medina was the Charter of Medina which was signed with the Jews. According to this treaty, Prophet (PBUH) granted the Jews with full religious freedom and they were allowed to practice their religion openly and without any interference from Muslims. However, they were bound to follow the foreign policies made by Prophet (PBUH) too, in the case of any attack on Medina, both the Muslims and Jews were to defend Medina together without any dispute among them. Also, both parties were bound to respect the rights of each other and to live together in a peaceful coexistence. From this treaty, we can conclude that Prophet (PBUH) was a person of extremely peaceful nature, who with due respect allowed non-Muslims to practice their religion and live freely. In addition, they were not to be condemned or persecuted unlike the Quraish, who had such behavior with Muslims. Furthermore, he proved to be a sincere leader and man of his words, as he did not even once think of Jews of Medina as their potential enemies. Even when after the first Jewish tribe, Banu Qirauizah broke the treaty with Muslims, Prophet (PBUH) remained honest with his dealings with other Jewish tribes of Medina.
Afterward, the second treaty that took place under the administration of Prophet (PBUH) was a treaty of Hudaiybiah. In this, the Prophet (PBUH) showed great patience and character as he agreed to the unfair terms of Quraish. This represented the fact that Islam as a religion itself is completely about peace. It also showed that Prophet (PBUH) did not take any offensive measures and always tried to initiate the cooperative and cordial relations with other communities and nations unless prompted by others to take some offensive steps. Furthermore, Prophet (PBUH) showed his honesty through the example that while the treaty was being signed, Hazrat Abu Jandal (R.A) came to Prophet (PBUH) and as tied in chains with a very miserable condition. He requested for help. All the Muslims along Prophet (PBUH) were shocked upon seeing his condition and wanted to help him but the representative of Quraish and Makka claimed that although the treaty had not been signed yet as its terms were agreed upon, so they have to send Abu Jandal back to Makka. Therefore, Prophet (PBUH) showing great discipline and honesty in dealing Abu Jandal’s case (R.A) and as per the terms of a treaty, he was sent back to Makka. This reflected upon the qualities of him in form of valor and steadfastness, despite being the leader of the whole Medininte community.
Prophet (PBUH) relation with Jews
When Holy Prophet (PBUH) arrived at Medina, he first treated all groups of Medinite society equally including Muslims, non-Muslims, Arabs, and Jews. Prophet (PBUH) realized that the foundation of Islamic empire must be strong so, he negotiated with the Jewish tribes, as they were the dominant power in Medina. Finally, they reached an agreement. It granted equal rights to Jews and freedom to carry out their religious practices openly. It stated that both parties must protect Medina against all enemies. This treaty was called ‘Charter of Medina’ and established Prophet (PBUH) as the leader of Medina. Gradually, the Jews distanced themselves from Prophet (PBUH). They mocked him on revelations he used to receive and marked him as a false prophet. At the time of the battle of Badr, the Jews did not help the Muslims despite the clause mentioned in Charter of Medina.
The Jewish tribes that proved to be the most problematic were Banu Qainuqa, Banu Quraiyzah, and Banu Nazir. Banu Qainuqa was the first tribe to break the treaty by fighting with Muslims in the periods between Battle of Badr and Battle of Uhad. Attempts made by Prophet (PBUH) to come to terms with them were unsuccessful. Therefore, a siege was enforced against the Banu Qainuqa tribe. As a result of which they were expelled from Medina in 2 A.H. A year later, Ka’ab, the Jewish leader was executed for his activities against Medina and interests of Muslims.
In the 4th year of Hijrat, the Banu Nazir plotted to murder Prophet (PBUH) by rolling a stone over him, while he stood at the entrance of their stronghold. At the same time, with the persuasion of Quraish, they rose against the Muslims. Prophet (PBUH) sent them a message to leave Medina, within ten days but they rejected the expulsion and captivated themselves in their fortresses. As a result of it, Prophet (PBUH) led an army against them and laid siege to their forts. After a siege of two weeks, the Jews of Banu Nazir surrendered and were exiled from Medina.
The third tribe was Banu Qurayizah, which openly joined Quraish during Battle of Trench. They helped Quraish to cross the trench by telling an alternative pathway and kept on disturbing Prophet (PBUH) and others during the war period. They were punished after the battle through their exile from Medina but they refused. So, Prophet (PBUH) besieged their settlements. Finally, they surrendered to him and agreed to abide by the decision of the leader of Aus tribe, Saad bin Muaad, who decided their fate according to Jewish law of the Old Testament. Their men were slain, women and children were sold as prisoners and their lands and properties were divided among the Muslims in 5th A.H.
Prophet(PBUH) relation with other states
Holy Prophet (PBUH) settled in the city of Medina in 622 A.D. and soon the city developed into a Muslim state.The system of administration devised by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) remained the basis of Muslim state for a number of years.
In 6A.H, Holy Prophet (PBUH) signed a treaty with the people of Makkah. This treaty was known as Treaty of Hudaybiah. He was not allowed to enter the Makkah and thus no pilgrimage but still was willing to accept the terms of the treaty that Quraishites presented. The treaty stated that Muslims shall return this year and come back next year. They shall not stay in Makkah for more than 3 days and must be unarmed. They can only bring swords, which must be sheathed. War activities shall not take place for a decade during which both parties would not enter into a dispute with each other. Whosoever wishes to join Quraish from Medina, he/she must be allowed. Furthermore, if anyone from the Quraish goes to Muhammad (PBUH), he shall be returned but if any of Muhammad’s (PBUH) follower goes to Quraish, he/she shall not be returned.
A number of companions including Hazrat Umar (R.A) was not happy with the terms of the treaty but for the sake of establishment of peace, Holy Prophet (PBUH) accepted the terms. Holy Prophet (PBUH) revolutionized the system of War and restricted the state policy of unprovoked aggression and territorial expansion.
In the 7th year after Hijrat, Holy Prophet (PBUH) decided to send letters to Kings and Emperors. Instead of fighting and capturing the neighboring countries for the growth of Islamic empire, he adopted a peaceful method of calling the rulers of countries to enter the fold of Islam. For every king, a special letter was written and one separate messenger was sent.
The letters sent by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were both accepted and rejected with disgrace. The Roman Emperor Hercules and the emperor of Egypt did not accept Islam but they treated the messenger politely and sent presents for Holy Prophet (PBUH). The emperor of Egypt sent two maids from noble (Optic families), some clothing and animals to ride on the journey back. The Roman Emperor told the messenger:” If I were with him, I would have washed his feet”. The Emperor of Abyssinia (Negus), Bahrain (Mandhir) and Oman (Jaffar) accepted Islam. One letter was sent to Persian King, Khusro Pervaiz who tore the letter into pieces and humiliated the messenger. On the contrary Holy Prophet(PBUH), without any bloodshed was able to bring 3 large empires to Islam.