Life in Madina
Reasons for migration to Madina
Persecutions by Quraish worsened with more and more conversions to Islam, in Makka. Many poor converts like Bilal (R.A) and Ammar suffered inhumane torture and even the prestigious converts were not spared at all. In 615 A.D. Prophet (PBUH) allowed the Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia because the ruler Najashi was a far and polite one. The group consisted of 15 emigrants. Quraish notables were sent with huge bribes and gifts, after the Muslims to ask Najashi to return them. Fortunately, Najashi turned down the appeal of Quraish after he heard the verses of Surah Maryam from Jaffar (R.A) and allowed the Muslims to live in Abyssinia as long as they want to. After this successful migration, Muslims began to believe that a migration to Medina would be much more beneficial and that they would be totally free from the oppression of Quraish.
In 616 A.D. the Quraish imposed a three-year long socio-economic boycott on the Banu Hashim true in order to isolate Prophet (PBUH) and his followers from active Makkan life and preaching activities. These years proved to no less than a survival challenge for them as they had to live under the scorching sun with scarce food items and water. Many people died due to starvation and hunger. The boycott was ended in 619 A.D. Holy Prophet (PBUH) suffered a dual loss as his beloved wife, Khadija (R.A) and his caring uncle, Abu Talib succumbed to death. This marked the end of Jiwar (tribal protection) for Prophet (PBUH) and the moral support which was very necessary for him to continue his campaign of flourishing Islam.
Consequently, he visited the valley of Taif to convey the message of faith. It was populated by Bani Thaqeef which was the second strongest tribe of Arabia and they proved to be more obstinate. They set street hooligans after Prophet (PBUH) who showered abuses and hurled stones at him. So, he had to escape Taif and his attempt of preaching Islam there failed. Prophet (PBUH) then shifted his attention towards the pilgrims from Medina. He addressed them successfully between 620 to 622 A.D. in 620 A.D, a group of six Medinite of Khazraj tribe, who came to Makka for pilgrimage, accepted Islam and promised to preach whatever they had learned from Prophet (PBUH). This was a great encouragement for Prophet (PBUH). Next year, 621 A.D, another group of pilgrims consisting of 11 persons, two from Aws tribe, not only accepted Islam but also pledged to protect Prophet (PBUH) in peace time. This is known as the first Pledge of Aqaba. In 622 A.D, even a larger delegation met him at Aqaba and accepted Islan. They were 75 in total with 73 men and 2 women who offered refuge to Prophet (PBUH) in Medina and pledged that they will provide protection to Prophet (PBUH) in a case of an armed conflict against the Makkans. This is called the second Pledge of Aqaba. As a result of these pledges, several Muslims began to leave for Medina. Later Prophet (PBUH) also migrated to Medina after he was divinely informed about the Makkan’s plan of slaying Prophet (PBUH) inside his residency.
Events took place during Migration
After the pledges of Aqabah family after the family left for Medina. When the Quraish came to know about this, they increased their persecutions on Prophet( PBUH) and his followers. Meanwhile, all the companions of Holy Prophet(PBUH) except Hazrat Abu Bakr(R.A) and Hazrat Ali(R.A) succeeded in migration to Medina.
The Quraish held a meeting in which they decided that one person from each tribe would be selected and that they would simultaneously attack the Holy Prophet(PBUH) and (God forbid) kill him. The Holy Prophet(PBUH) was informed of this plan by Allah and was told to leave Makkah that same night:
”REMEMBER HOW THE UNBELIEVER PLOTTED AGAINST THEE, TO KEEP YOU IN BONDS, OR SLAY YOU, OR TO GET OUT OF YOUR HOME. THEY PLOT AND PLAN AND ALLAH TOO PLANS, BUT THE BEST OF PLANNERS IS ALLAH.”
The Holy Prophet(PBUH) asked Hazrat Ali(R.A) to sleep on his bed and to return valuables entrusted to Prophet (PBUH) by various people. Prophet (PBUH) came out from the house with Allah’s protection at his side, cast a handful of dust at the disbelievers and made his way through them while reciting the verses of Surah Yasin:
“AND WE HAVE PUT A BARRIER BEFORE THEM AND BARRIER BEHIND THEM AND WE HAVE COVERED THEM UP SO THAT CAN NOT SEE.”
In the morning, when Hazrat Ali (R.A) rose up, he was enquired about Prophet (PBUH) and he explained to them that he did not know himself. This situation stunned Quraish. Prophet (PBUH) was led by Abu Bakr (R.A) to the cave of Saur instead of the way to Medina. After reaching, Prophet (PBUH) laid his head on the lap of Abu Bakr (R.A) and fell asleep. Meanwhile, a snake appeared before them and Abu Bakr (R.A) put his foot on the mouth of the hole from where the snake emerged and it stung Abu Bakr (R.A) on it. Due to severe pain, tears fell from his eyes to Prophet’s (PBUH) face which woke him. He then applied his saliva on the foot of Abu Bakr (R.A) and the pain disappeared. On the other hand, Makkans used all their strength and wisdom to track them down. One day, they successfully reached the mouth of the cave and Abu Bakr (R.A) got frightened. Prophet (PBUH) said:
“ABU BAKR SILENCE! WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THOSE TO WITH WHOM THE THIRD IS ALLAH?”
When the Makkans saw the cave, they turned around because the entrance was covered with a cobweb and there was a pair of pigeons on the threshold. This happened miraculously and it convinced the Makkans that the cave was empty when they saw the branches of a tree that covered the mouth of the cave nearby. After this incident, they departed from the cave and continued their journey.
Meanwhile, Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) saw two isolated tents. There lived an old woman who had a goat which could not give milk. Prophet (PBUH) touched its udder and it began to provide milk. The party then refreshed by drinking milk and set to their journey to Medina. Afterward, Prophet (PBUH) met Buraidah bin al-Husaib and about 80 other men. All of them accepted Islam and performed Salah with Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (R.A).
On 8th Rabi-ul-Awal, the 14th year of Prophethood, Prophet (PBUH) reached Quba. They established the first Islamic mosque and also met Hazrat Ali (R.A) there. The Muslims of Medina anxiously waited for Prophet (PBUH) but the heat of the day forced them to return. One day a Jew climbed up to the roof of a fort and saw the Prophet’s (PBUH) caravan, dressed in white. He shouted about it and Muslims emerged from their houses and received Holy Prophet (PBUH) with a great welcome. Prophet (PBUH) kept quite while Allah revealed:
“ALLAH CERTAINLY IS HIS PATRON. BESIDES JIBRAEL (R.A), THE RIGHTEOUS BELIEVERS AND THE ANGELS ARE HIS HELPERS.”
Events after the Migration to Madina
Upon the arrival of Prophet (PBUH) at Medina, the first important step that he took was the building of a mosque. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that he would stay at the place where his camel would stop and settle. The camel sat on a plot which belonged to two orphans which Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself bought from them. Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself worked hard along with his companions to complete the construction of mosque which was later named as ‘Masjid-e-Nabvi. It not only became a spiritual center for worship but also the political and military headquarters for the new state. All the important affairs of the Islamic state were conducted in the mosque. It soon developed into an institute of learning where discussions and seminars were held. The mosque also became a social institution where Muslims learned and practiced discipline, unity, and brotherhood. The Holy Quran refers to Masjid-e-Nabvi as:
“THERE IS A MOSQUE WHOSE FOUNDATION LAID FROM THE FIRST DAY ON PIETY, IT IS MORE WORTHY OF THY STANDING FORTH (FOR PRAYER) THEREIN.”
A large platform with a thatched roof was built in one of the corners of the Masjid-e-Nabvi. This was known as Suffah which provided shelter for poor Madinites.
The Muslims in Medina belonged to two categories. Those who had immigrated to Medina from Makkah (Muhajireen) and those who belonged to Medina (Ansars) and provided the shelter and helping hand to the immigrants. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) established unity between these two groups. He told Ansars that Muhajireen were in need of help and so he wanted to create brotherhood between them. The Ansars agreed to this and took their respective Muhajireen brothers to their houses, treated them with hospitality and shared their possessions. Holy Quran says:
“THOSE WHO BELIEVED AND ADOPTED WHILE, AND FOUGHT FOR FAITH, WITH THEIR PROPERTY AND THEIR PERSONS, IN THE CAUSE OF ALLAH AS WELL AS THOSE WHO GAVE (THEM) ASYLUM AND AID. THESE PEOPLE ARE FRIENDS AND PROTECTORS OF ONE ANOTHER.”
The bond of brotherhood proved to be very strong and even the enmity between the two tribes of Medina, Aus and Khazraj was forgotten. Holy Quran says:
“… AND REMEMBER WITH GRATITUDE ALLAH’S FAVOR ON YOU, FOR YE WERE ENEMIES AND HE JOINED YOUR HEARTS IN LOVE.”
Another important event that took place was the Charter of Medina. Holy Prophet (PBUH) realized that the foundation of Islamic Empire would be weak unless it got the support of all people of Medina. So, in order to gain support, immediately after settlement, Holy Prophet (PBUH) called Muslims and Jewish tribes together for consultation. In the end, an agreement was reached which granted equal rights to Jews with the freedom to practice their religion openly. It stated that Muslims and Jews were allies and would assist each other in case of an attack on Medina. Also that there would be no disputes between the two groups or otherwise the peace agreement would be terminated. As a result of this Charter, the relations between Muslims and Jews were regulated and gradually, Holy Prophet (PBUH) established himself as the leader and the head of the state of Medina.
Role of Muslims & Non-Muslims in developing a community at Medina
When Muslims came to Medina, they were categorized under the ones who had migrated from Makka to Medina were entitled as Muhajireen and those who were already residing in Medina and supported the migrants were known as Ansars. The Muhajireen were generally poor as they had left all of their belongings in Makka. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) established brotherhood between these two groups of Muslims. He told the Ansars that the Muhajireen were in need of help and so he wanted to create brotherhood between them. The Ansars willingly agreed to this. They took their Muhajireen brothers to their houses, treated them with hospitality and shared all their possessions with them. The Holy Quran says:
” THOSE WHO BELIEVE AND ADOPTED EXILE, AND FOUGHT FOR THE FAITH, WITH THEIR PROPERTY AND THEIR PERSONS, IN CAUSE OF ALLAH AS WELL AS THOSE WHO GAVE THEM ASYLUM AND AID”
Even the enmity between the tribes of Aus and Khazraj was forgotten. Holy Quran says:
” THOSE WHO BELIEVE, EMIGRATE, STRUGGLE IN ALLAH’S WAY AND THOSE WHO GIVE SHELTER AND HELP, THEY INDEED ARE THE TRUE BELIEVERS. FOR THEM WILL BE FORGIVENESS AND HONORABLE PROVISION”.
After the establishment of this brotherhood now came the treaty with Jews known as the Charter of Medina. There were three main tribes: Banu Qunaiqa, Banu Nazir, and Banu Quraiza settled in the suburbs of Medina in their own strong fortresses. Holy Prophet (PBUH) realized that the foundation would be very weak unless it got the support of all people living in Medina. The situation called for a strong measure of coordination and adjustment, particularly as Muslims were threatened by Quraish. Therefore as soon as Holy Prophet (PBUH) was settled in Medina, he called together the Muslims and Jewish tribes for consultation.
He invited them to consider the possibility of establishing some system of co-operation whereby the safety of Medina might be secured. After an exchange of views, an agreement was reached which granted equal rights to Jews with full liberty to follow their own faith without any interference by Muslims. It stated that the Muslims and Jews were allies and would help each other, that neither party would commit aggression against the others, and in the case of an attack on Medina, both Muslims and Jews will defend it. Furthermore, it guaranteed the protection of their life and property. By virtue of this agreement, the relations between the Muslims and Jews were regulated. It also established Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a leader and the head of state.
Main battles of Prophet (P.B.U.H) life
Battle of Badr:
On 17th Ramadan 2 A.H, the Muslim and Quraishite armies met for the first time in the battlefield of Badr. The Muslims army numbered 313, was poorly equipped but faced resolutely 1000 men armed to their teeth. The disparity between the numbers and equipment was hard to imagine. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) advanced to the valley of Badr and seized the water sources and then blocked up all the wells except one nearest to Makka. Holy Prophet (PBUH) spent that night, praying to Allah for divine help. The prayers were accepted as its written in Quran:
“REMEMBER YE IMPLORED THE ASSISTANCE OF YOUR LORD, AND HE ANSWERED YOU. I WILL ASSIST YOU WITH A THOUSAND OF ANGELS, RANKS ON RANKS.”
Next day, the battle was begun. It was fought in three stages: war of words, one on one combat and general fighting.
The Quraish lost their three prominent chiefs: Utba, Shaiba and Walid bin Utba by the hands of Ali (R.A), Hamza (R.A) and Abu Ubaidah (R.A). Then the general fighting broke out. Muslims followed the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) instructions to shoot arrows, then hurl stones and then engage on foot. Soon Muslims were able to press the enemies hard as their leading figures were killed, including Abu Jahl, Umayyah bin Khalaf, and many others. A total of 70 Makkans were killed and 70 were taken as prisoners. They included Abbas (Prophet’s (PBUH) uncle), An-Nazr, Uqba, Sohail and son of Abu Sufyan. Against this only 14 Muslims were martyred. The Muslims also captured 115 camels, 14 horses and a rich store of clothes, carpets and war weapons. The Quran mentions this victory as:
“ALLAH HAD HELPED YOU AT BADR, WHEN YOU WERE A CONTEMPTIBLE LITTLE FORCE.”
Battle of Uhad:
in Ramazan 3 A.H, the Quraish wanted to avenge their loss at Badr. For this, they raised an army of 3000 well-equipped men of whom 700 had coats of mail, with 200 horses and 3000 camels which were led by Abu Sufyan. Prophet (PBUH) held a meeting and an army of 1000 Muslims, including 300 horsemen of Abdullah bin Ubbay. After marching a few miles he deserted his 300 men from the army; leaving only 700 Muslims behind. Next day, early in the morning, Prophet (PBUH) occupied the western slope of the Uhad Hill, so Muslims stood a safer position. On the hill, there was a little pass which enemies could use to attack from the rear, so Prophet (PBUH) appointed 50 archers. They were strictly instructed not to leave their positions unless they were commanded to. After the war of words and the war of individuals, Talha and his brother Usman were killed by Ali (R.A) and Usman (R.A). The general fighting initiated and soon Makkans began to retreat and at that moment, 38 archers left their positions and got busy in the collection of war booty. When Khalid bin Walid (R.A) saw this, he attacked from the rear passage along with his men, but Prophet (PBUH) was surrounded by many faithful followers so they turned back. In the meantime, a rumor was spread that Prophet (PBUH) had been martyred which morally disintegrated the Muslims. It also allowed the Makkans to relax. As soon as this news was marked as false, the enemies decided to return to Makka as they already got the revenge by killing 70 Muslims against a loss of only 10 men.
Treaties under Prophet (P.B.U.H)
During Prophet’s (PBUH) life in Medina, Treaty of Hudaibiyah was signed. When Prophet (PBUH) entered Medina, there were three tribes of Jews: Banu Nazir, Banu Quraiyaza, and Banu Qainuqa, which had settled in their strong fortresses. Holy Prophet (PBUH) realized that the foundation of Islamic Empire would be very weak unless it got the support from all of the people living in Medina. The situation called for a strong measure of coordination and adjustment as Quraish seriously threatened Muslims. Prophet (PBUH) invited Jewish tribes to consider the possibility of establishing some system of mutual coordination and safety. After the exchange of views, an agreement was reached which granted equal rights to Jews with the freedom to practice their faith. It stated that Muslims and Jews were allies and would help each other, that neither of the party would commit aggression against one and other and in the case of an attack on Medina, both Muslims and Jews would defend it. This also guaranteed the protection of Muslims’ life and property. By virtue of this agreement, the relations between the Muslims and Jews were regulated on the basis for which some part of the governance of Medina was granted to Muslims.
In 6 A.H. Prophet (PBUH) had a dream that he had entered the Sacred Mosque at Makka. Therefore, he decided to go to Makka for performing an Umrah. Quran says:
“TRULY DID ALLAH FULFILL THE VISION FOR HIS MESSENGER, YE SHALL ENTER THE SACRED MOSQUE IF ALLAH WILLS.”
Accordingly, Prophet (PBUH) with 1400 unarmed companions set out for Makka, to perform the pilgrimage. Quraish decided not to allow them so stopped them at Hudaibiyah, which was three miles from Makka. From there he sent a messenger to inform them that they had not come to wage war but to perform Umrah. The messenger sent by Prophet (PBUH) did not return so he sent Hazrat Usman (R.A). He too was detained and a rumor was spread that he had been martyred. Prophet (PBUH) collected all his followers near the oasis of Rizwan and took an oath with others, to lay down their lives in name of Allah. Quran says:
“ALLAH’S GOOD PLEASURE WAS ON THE BELIEVER WHEN THEY SWORE FEALTY TO THEE UNDER THE TREE.”
The Quraish were disturbed when they heard about it and decided to negotiate a peace treaty with Muslims. It was called Treaty of Hudaibiyah. The clauses included that Muslims would return to Medina that year. They would be permitted to come for pilgrimage next year but would stay no longer than three days. If Makkan wishes to join Muslims of Medina without their permission then he must be sent back. But if a Muslim from Medina went to Makka, he would not be sent back. There would be no fighting for a decade. The majority of Muslims were not satisfied with the clauses of this treaty yet Prophet (PBUH) accepted them with the command of Allah, who Himself declared this as a victory in Quran:
“VERILY WE HAVE INDEED GRANTED THEE A MANIFEST VICTORY”.
The Last Sermon of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)
In the 10th year of A.H, Holy Prophet (PBUH) decided to visit Makka to perform a pilgrimage. He along with 1400 of his followers and accompanied by all his wives reached Makka. On 9th Zilhaj, at the plain of Arafat, near the Mount of Mercy, he delivered his last sermon. This sermon contains imperishable knowledge for the mankind and can be termed as the first universal charter of human rights.
Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked his followers to listen carefully and told them about his impending death. He said:
“O PEOPLE! LISTEN TO MY WORDS FOR I DON’T KNOW WHETHER I SHALL BE IN YOUR MIDST AFTER THIS YEAR.”
He prohibited all corrupted ideas of pagans and laid emphasis on the sanctity of life. He told the people to fulfill the rights of fellow beings and praise Allah alone, Who is One and has no partners.
Holy Prophet (PBUH) prohibited Riba (the taking of interest or making a loan to someone). He proclaimed that he is leaving behind the Holy Quran and his Sunnah, which will guide the believers to the righteous path:
“O PEOPLE! I AM LEAVING BEHIND ME TWO THINGS, IF YOU FOLLOW THESE YOU WILL NEVER GO ASTRAY.”
He warned the people from Satan and his followers who are open enemies of human beings. Prophet (PBUH) directed the believers to fulfill the rights of the faith by following the five pillars of Islam. He said:
“BEHOLD! WORSHIP YOUR LORD, OBSERVE FAST IN THE MONTH OF RAMAZAN, OFFER PRAYERS FIVE TIME A DAY, PAY THE CHARITY TAX ON YOUR PROPERTY AND PERFORM PILGRIMAGE TO THE HOUSE OF ALLAH.”
Furthermore, Prophet (PBUH) raised the status of women and slaves for the first time in the history of Arabia. Women were granted their rights from which they had been deprived for a long time. Prophet (PBUH) remarked:
“O PEOPLE! YOU HAVE RIGHTS OVER YOUR WIVES AND YOUR WIVES HAVE RIGHTS OVER YOU. TREAT YOUR WIVES WITH KINDNESS. VERILY! YOU HAVE TAKEN THEM ON THE SECURITY OF ALLAH.”
He also told that the slaves must be treated according to their rights and not like some minor creatures.
“FEED YOUR SLAVES AS YOU FEED YOURSELVES AND CLOTHE YOUR SLAVES AS YOU CLOTHE YOURSELVES.”
Holy Prophet (PBUH) moreover said that whole mankind is the children of Adam and therefore we are equal and brothers to each other. “…remember that all Muslims are brothers.” Prophet (PBUH) further told that none has superiority over others except on the basis of good actions or piety:
“NO ARAB HAS PREFERENCE OVER A NON-ARAB OR A NON-ARAB OVER AN ARAB OR A WHITE OVER A BLACK OR A BLACK OVER WHITE.”
He informed the believers that he is the last messenger of Allah and there would be none after him and also that Islam is the universal religion, compiling all the faiths that had been previously preached by the earlier messengers and prophets.
“NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BORN.”
Prophet (PBUH) also laid an emphasis on conveying his message to others:
“Let him is that present tell it to him who is absent…”
Upon the ending of the sermon, Prophet (PBUH) received the last revelation, in which a verse of Surah Maidah was revealed:
“THIS DAY I HAVE PERFECTED YOUR RELIGION, COMPLETED THE FAVOR UPON YOU AND HAVE CHOSEN ISLAM AS YOUR RELIGION.”